- 21.6: Molecular Orbitals
- What is the difference between the 2px orbital and the 2py orbital?
- s,p,d,f Orbitals
- How does a 2px orbital differ from a 2py orbital?
21.6: Molecular Orbitals
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An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as defined by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. Any orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own spin quantum number. These names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations.
The number denotes the energy level of the electron in the orbital. Thus 1 refers to the energy level closest to the nucleus; 2 refers to the next energy level further out, and so on. The letter refers to the shape of the orbital. The letters go in the order s, p, d, f, g, h, i, j, etc. The letters s, p, d, and f were assigned for historical reasons that need not concern us. All we have to do is remember the shapes that correspond to each letter.
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In order to explain both the ground state and the excited state involved in an absorption band in the ultraviolet and visible spectra of molecules , it is necessary to look at the electronic structure of molecules in somewhat different terms from the description given in the sections on Chemical Bonding and Further Aspects of Covalent Bonding. In those chapters we treated electrons either as bonding pairs located between two nuclei, or as lone pairs associated with a single nucleus.
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In any introductory chemistry course you will have come across the electronic structures of hydrogen and carbon drawn as:. It is, however, a simplification and can be misleading. It gives the impression that the electrons are circling the nucleus in orbits like planets around the sun. As you will see in a moment, it is impossible to know exactly how they are actually moving. The circles show energy levels - representing increasing distances from the nucleus.
What is the difference between the 2px orbital and the 2py orbital?
The px orbital has a magnetic quantum number value of -1, and the py orbital has a magnetic quantum number value of 0. They are perpendicular to each other on the three-dimensional axes. Electrons in molecule are present in the molecular orbitals which are associated with several nuclei. Nitrogen atom has 7 electrons. The orbital diagram would look like this. Four, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz These can hold a maximum of 8 electrons, 2 in each orbital with opposite spin. Nitrogen N has atomic number 7.
How does a 2px orbital differ from a 2py orbital?