Biol 228 A&P: arteries and veins and the Circulatory Systemand
Blood vessels include arteries, capillaries, and veins which are responsible for transporting blood throughout the body. The blood from the heart is carried through the body by a complex network of blood vessels. Arteries take blood away from the heart. The main artery is the aorta that branches into other major arteries, which take blood to different limbs and organs. These major arteries include the carotid artery, which takes blood to the brain; the brachial arteries, which take blood to the arms; and the thoracic artery, which takes blood to the thorax and then into the hepatic, renal, and gastric arteries for the liver, kidneys, and stomach, respectively. The iliac artery takes blood to the lower limbs. The major arteries diverge into minor arteries, and then into smaller vessels called arterioles, to reach more deeply into the muscles and organs of the body.
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 liters of blood that the blood vessels transport. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 liters of blood throughout the body every minute. There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body: the pulmonary circulation loop and the systemic circulation loop. The size of blood vessels corresponds with the amount of blood that passes through the vessel. All blood vessels contain a hollow area called the lumen through which blood is able to flow. Around the lumen is the wall of the vessel, which may be thin in the case of capillaries or very thick in the case of arteries.
Your circulatory system contains a vast network of blood vessels, which includes arteries, veins , and capillaries.
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Virtually every cell, tissue, organ, and system in the body is impacted by the circulatory system. This includes the generalized and more specialized functions of transport of materials, capillary exchange, maintaining health by transporting white blood cells and various immunoglobulins antibodies , hemostasis, regulation of body temperature, and helping to maintain acid-base balance. In addition to these shared functions, many systems enjoy a unique relationship with the circulatory system. Figure 1 summarizes these relationships. As you learn about the vessels of the systemic and pulmonary circuits, notice that many arteries and veins share the same names, parallel one another throughout the body, and are very similar on the right and left sides of the body. These pairs of vessels will be traced through only one side of the body.
Blood Vessels: Illustrations
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Most veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins , both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart. - In the lungs, the pulmonary arteries in blue carry unoxygenated blood from the heart into the lungs. The aorta is the large artery leaving the heart.
Throughout the body, the arteries (in red) deliver oxygenated blood and nutrients to all of the body's tissues, and the veins (in blue) return oxygen-poor blood.
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