How are cations and anions formed

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The Difference Between a Cation and an Anion

how are cations and anions formed

Formation of Cations

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Cations and anions are both ions. The difference between a cation and an anion is the net electrical charge of the ion. Ions are atoms or molecules which have gained or lost one or more valence electrons , giving the ion a net positive or negative charge. If the chemical species has more protons than electrons, it carries a net positive charge. If there are more electrons than protons, the species has a negative charge. Cations are ions with a net positive charge.

Cations positively-charged ions and anions negatively-charged ions are formed when a metal loses electrons, and a nonmetal gains those electrons. The electrostatic attraction between the positives and negatives brings the particles together and creates an ionic compound, such as sodium chloride. A metal reacts with a nonmetal to form an ionic bond. The halogens VIIA elements all have seven valence electrons. All the halogens gain a single electron to fill their valence energy level.

Every atom in its ground state is uncharged. It has, according to its atomic number, the same number of protons and electrons.
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How do you transform a deadly gas into something you can sprinkle on your eggs and eat for breakfast? Chlorine in its free form is very dangerous if you breathe the fumes or come in contact with the gas. However, after reaction with sodium, we have sodium chloride formed as the sodium atom gives up an electron to chlorine which accepts the electron to form the chloride anion. Anions are the negative ions formed from the gain of one or more electrons. When nonmetal atoms gain electrons, they often do so until their outermost principal energy level achieves an octet. This process is illustrated below for the elements fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen. All of these anions are isoelectronic with each other and with neon.

Formulas for Ionic Compounds. The atoms in molecules bond to one another through "sharing"of electrons. Ionic compounds on the other had have atoms or molecules that bond to one another through their mutual attraction between positive and negative charges:. Positively charged atoms or molecules are called "cations" and negatively charged atoms or molecules are called "anions". Thus cations and anions attract one another. Conversely, cations repel one another as do anions.

Since the charge of the electron considered negative by convention is equal and opposite to that of the proton considered positive by convention , the net charge of an ion is non-zero due to its total number of electrons being unequal to its total number of protons. A cation is a positively charged ion, with fewer electrons than protons, while an anion is negatively charged, with more electrons than protons. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds. Ions consisting of only a single atom are termed atomic or monatomic ions , while two or more atoms form molecular ions or polyatomic ions. In the case of physical ionization in a medium, such as a gas, "ion pairs" are created by ion collisions, where each generated pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion. This term was introduced after a suggestion by William Whewell [3] by English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday in for the then-unknown species that goes from one electrode to the other through an aqueous medium.



8.4: Anion Formation

What's an Ion?

Positive and Negative Ions: Cations and Anions

Most atoms and molecules we encounter are electrically neutral, but ions play an important part in nature. These charged atoms can be positively charged cations or negatively charged anions. Cations and Anions form in different ways. For cations, the loss of an electron leaves them with a net positive charge, whereas for anions, the addition of an electron leaves them with a net negative charge. Understanding the processes behind this, including the ionization energy and electron affinity of different atoms, helps you see why certain atoms become ions more easily than others and what causes it to happen. Cations are positively charged ions formed when an atom loses an electron through ionization. The amount of energy required to do this is called the ionization energy.

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