What Is a Covalent Compound?
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A covalent bond , also called a molecular bond , is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs , and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons , is known as covalent bonding. In organic chemistry covalent bonds are much more common than ionic bonds. In the molecule H 2 , the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require that the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity. Covalent bonding that entails sharing of electrons over more than two atoms is said to be delocalized.
In Ionic Compounds , we learned that ionic compounds are formed when an electronegative atom grabs an electron from an atom with low electronegativity. The reason for this is the octet rule, which states that all elements want to gain or lose electrons so they have the same electron configuration as the closest noble gas. One thing we didn't discuss, however, is what happens when two electronegative atoms react with one another. For example, both nitrogen and hydrogen want to gain electrons to be like their nearest noble gas—this suggests that they won't give electrons to one another. By doing so, one would actually be further away from its goal of a full electron shell. Surprisingly, hydrogen and nitrogen actually form a large number of chemical compounds with one another, including everybody's favorite household cleaner, ammonia NH3. How does this work, anyway?
A covalent bond may also be termed a molecular bond. Covalent bonds form between two nonmetal atoms with identical or relatively close electronegativity values. This type of bond may also be found in other chemical species, such as radicals and macromolecules. The term "covalent bond" first came into use in , although Irving Langmuir introduced the term "covalence" in to describe the number of electron pairs shared by neighboring atoms. The electron pairs that participate in a covalent bond are called bonding pairs or shared pairs. Typically, sharing bonding pairs allows each atom to achieve a stable outer electron shell, similar to that seen in noble gas atoms. Two important types of covalent bonds are nonpolar or pure covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds.
Compounds are defined as substances containing two or more different chemical elements. They have distinct chemical structures characterized by a fixed ratio of atoms held together by chemical bonds. Here, we discuss two classes of compounds based on the bond type that holds the atoms together: ionic and covalent. Covalent bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. These bonds mostly occur between nonmetals or between two of the same or similar elements. Two atoms with similar electronegativity will not exchange an electron from their outermost shell; the atoms instead share electrons so that their valence electron shell is filled. Examples of compounds that contain only covalent bonds are methane CH 4 , carbon monoxide CO , and iodine monobromide IBr.
Covalent bonding occurs when pairs of electrons are shared by atoms. Atoms will covalently bond with other atoms in order to gain more stability, which is gained by forming a full electron shell. By sharing their outer most valence electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electron shell and gain stability. Nonmetals will readily form covalent bonds with other nonmetals in order to obtain stability, and can form anywhere between one to three covalent bonds with other nonmetals depending on how many valence electrons they posses. Although it is said that atoms share electrons when they form covalent bonds, they do not usually share the electrons equally. Only when two atoms of the same element form a covalent bond are the shared electrons actually shared equally between the atoms. When atoms of different elements share electrons through covalent bonding, the electron will be drawn more toward the atom with the higher e lectronegativity resulting in a polar covalent bond.
Covalent Compounds - Polar and Nonpolar
A covalent compound is a molecule formed by covalent bonds, in which the atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons. Chemical compounds are generally grouped into one of two categories: covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are made up of electrically.
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